Persistent Service Daemon Processes

In order to start up a service (such as an Unframed Architecture TCP/IP server daemon), a shell script, regularly run by the cron system, can be used to make it start up whenever the service goes down, regardless of the underlying cause. You will need to use sudo for editing the crontab file and making the script executable.

Create a shell script for restarting the ‘daemon’ service if it is found to not be running (script path is “/usr/sbin/daemon-p.bash”):


# find a process name that starts with '/' and 
# explicitly matches 'daemon' and 
# is at the end of the string ('$'):
ps ax | grep '/daemon$' | sed -e 's/.*grep.*//' | grep '/daemon$' 
if (( "$?" != 0 )) ; then
	echo "restarting daemon at $(date)" >> /tmp/daemon-p.log
	nohup /usr/sbin/daemon > /dev/null 2>&1 &
	ps ax | grep '/daemon$' | sed -e 's/.*grep.*//' | grep '/daemon$' 
	if (( "$?" == 0 )) ; then
		echo "restart successful at $(date)" >> /tmp/daemon-p.log
		echo "restart failed at $(date)" >> /tmp/daemon-p.log

Make the script executable:

chmod +x /usr/sbin/daemon-p.bash

Edit the crontab file using nano (or your favorite editor):

EDITOR=nano crontab -e

Add the following line to the end of the crontab file (will run the ‘daemon-p.bash’ script every minute):

*/1 * * * * /usr/sbin/daemon-p.bash

(see CronHowTo for other temporal options)

Run the following command to start your service daemon:

nohup /usr/sbin/daemon > /dev/null 2>&1 &

Run the following command to get the PID of your service daemon:

ps ax | grep '/daemon$' | sed -e 's/.*grep.*//' | grep '/daemon$'


(PID) ?        S      0:00 /usr/sbin/daemon

Run the following command simulate the service daemon going down:

kill (PID)

Wait until the next minute (on the system clock) elapses, and test for your service daemon coming back to life:

ps ax | grep '/daemon$' | sed -e 's/.*grep.*//' | grep '/daemon$'

Returns (when the service daemon has restarted):

(PID) ?        S      0:00 /usr/sbin/daemon


View the log file (produced by the script) to see the history:

cat /tmp/daemon-p.log

Returns something like this:

restarting daemon at Tue Jun  5 15:26:01 MDT 2018
restart successful at Tue Jun  5 15:26:01 MDT 2018

If the process detection phase of the script seems to be failing, shunt its output to the log file by modifying the lines that detect the process:

ps ax | grep '/daemon$' | sed -e 's/.*grep.*//' | grep '/daemon$' >> /tmp/daemon-p.log

Automatic Service Daemon Startup

In order to start up a service (such as an Unframed Architecture TCP/IP server daemon), the init.d system can be used to make it start up whenever the system starts up.

Copy the service program file to the binary folder (use sudo if not root):

cp progname /usr/sbin/progname

Create a script in the init.d folder (example at the end of this post):


Give the script executable permission:

chmod 755 /etc/init.d/progname

Change directory to the init.d folder:

cd /etc/init.d

Add the service to the startup list with low priority:

update-rc.d progname defaults 97 03

Restart the system; check to see if the daemon is running:

ps -A --sort cmd

To manually start the service:

service progname start

In this case, progname is a TCP/IP service daemon (listening on port 6666), so this command will display the status:

sudo netstat -lpn |grep :6666

Returns (where 12818 is the PID):

tcp 0 0* LISTEN 12818/progname

Example init.d script:

(Modified from: /etc/init.d/skeleton on local system)
# kFreeBSD do not accept scripts as interpreters, using #!/bin/sh and sourcing.
if [ true != "$INIT_D_SCRIPT_SOURCED" ] ; then
    set "$0" "$@"; INIT_D_SCRIPT_SOURCED=true . /lib/init/init-d-script
# Provides:          skeleton
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: Example initscript
# Description:       This file should be used to construct scripts to be
#                    placed in /etc/init.d.  This example start a
#                    single forking daemon capable of writing a pid
#                    file.  To get other behavoirs, implemend
#                    do_start(), do_stop() or other functions to
#                    override the defaults in /lib/init/init-d-script.

# Author: Someone Somewhere (
# Please remove the "Author" lines above and replace them
# with your own name if you copy and modify this script.


Launch, Monitor, and Terminate Linux Daemons

If you have a daemon listening on port 6666,

connector = 
  (struct sockaddr*)&client, 

the following commands will be helpful for managing it.


nohup ./daemon > /dev/null 2>&1 &

Monitor (use sudo if not root):

netstat -lpn |grep :6666

Above call returns (note the returned PID):

tcp 0 0* LISTEN PID/daemon


kill -9 PID

Unframed Architecture

After working with “microservices” and other top-heavy development frameworks for years, I think it is time to get down to the bare metal and define an architectural orientation that performs much better:

Unframed Architecture

A design pattern in which:

  • All executable components and libraries are compiled into native machine code
  • All executable components are not dependent on any kind of framework (“runtime” environment) or virtual machine
  • All network communications are in the form of full 8-bit binary data

Source code examples on BitBucket